Geoarchaeology Laboratory, UH Hilo
The Geoarchaeology Laboratory was founded in 2004through a Major Research Instrumentation Grant from the National Science Foundation (BCS-0317528), and specializes in non-destructive analyses of basalt and volcanic glass artifacts from the Pacific. It has been funded by 2 additional NSF grants (BCS-0949058 and BCS-1427950) to non-destructively analyze basalt artifacts in Museum Collections throughoutHawaiʻi.
(with sources for samples or permissions):
Kīlauea Archaeological samples quarried from volcanic bombs surrounding Kilauea Caldera; courtesy of Jadelyn Moniz-Nakamura, NPS.
Maunakea Archaeological samples from 1970s Bishop Museum excavations, now on exhibit at ʻImiloa Astronomy Center- See Mills et al. (2008). (NARS)
Pololū Archaeological samples from 1970s UH Manoa surveys; courtesy of Jo Lynn Gunness, Mark Oxley.
Puʻuwaʻawaʻa Archaeological samples, published in McCoy et. al (2011) Journal of Archaeological Science.
Nuʻu (archaeological samples, see Kahn et al. 2008)
Haleakalā (geological samples from site 2510, courtesy of Melanie Mintmier, Elizabeth Gordon, NPS)
Waiahole (archaeological samples from UH Mānoa, courtesy of Jo Lynn Gunness, see Cleghorn et al. 1985 A preliminary petrographic study of Hawaiian Stone Adze Quarries. Journal of the Polynesian Society 94(3):235-251).
Eiao (Charleux et al. 2014)
- Nuʻalolo Kai, Na Pali Coast, Kauaʻi (Mills et al. 2010)
- Kahaluʻu Habitation Cave, Kona,Hawaiʻi Island (Mills et al. 2011)
- Kahikinui, Maui (Kirch et al. 2012)
- Adirondack Iron and Steel Co. Bricks (Staley et al. 2012)
- Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau (Rieth et al. 2013)
- ʻOpunohu Valley, Moʻorea, Society Islands (Kahn et al. 2013)
- Leeward Hawaiʻi Island Volcanic Glass (Lundblad et al. 2013)
- AGA-3, Mangareva (Kirch et al. 2015)
- Central Polynesia (Gerrish 2015)
- Hālawa Dune Site, Molokaʻi(Mills et al. 2017)
Please Mail samples to the attention ofPeter Mills
UH Hilo Dept of Anthropology, Social Sciences Division
200 W. Kāwili Street
Hilo, HI 96720
We currently expend over $9000/year to maintain a service contract on the EDXRF spectrometer and must charge fees through a Research Corporation of the University of Hawaiʻi (RCUH) revolving account for outside analyses to help cover these costs. For analyses not related to the current NSF Grant, our standard fee for clean basalt samples is $30/sample, but we regularly negotiate subsidized rates for large submissions and student research. Our philosophy is that it is in everyone's best interest to analyze large numbers of samples rather than to have researchers submit fewer samples due to tight budgets.
UH Hilo Geoarchaeology Publications
Mills, P.R., *P. Lima, *L. Brandt, J. Kahn, P. Kirch, and S. Lundblad. 2017. Paired geochemical and technological analyses of basalt adze debitage at the Hālawa Dune Site, Molokaʻi Island, Hawaiʻi." _Archaeology in Oceania._ DOI: 10.1002 / arco.5143.
Kahn, J.G., S.P. Lundblad, P.R., Mills, Y. Chan, K. Longenecker, and Y. Sinoto. 2016. Settlement Chronologies and Shifting Resource Exploitation in Ka'ū District, Hawaiian Islands. Asian Perspectives 55(2), pp.184-207.
*Gerrish, Hattie Wheeler. 2015. Marquesan Adzes in Hawaiʻi: Collections, Provenance, and Sourcing. Hohonu (A Journal of Academic Writing, UH Hilo) 13:14-18.
Kirch, P.V., G. Molle, C. Nickelsen, P. Mills, E. Dotte-Sarout, J. Swift, A. Wolfe, and M. Horrocks. 2015. Human ecodynamics in the Mangareva Islands: a stratified sequence from Nenega-Iti Rock Shelter (site AGA-3, Agakauitai Island). Archaeology in Oceania. DOI: 10.1002/arco.5050.
Mills, P.R. and S.P Lundblad. 2014. Current Perspectives on Hawaiʻi's Stone Tool Economies. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 5(2): 30-39.
Charleux, M., McAlister, A., Mills, P.R., and Lundblad, S.P. 2014. Non-destructive XRF Analyses of Fine-grained Basalts from Eiao, Marquesas Islands. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 5(1):75-89.
Lundblad, S.P., P. R. Mills, M. D. McCoy, . G. Kahn, *K. Mulliken and *Dane Kaylor. 2013. Identification of Volcanic Glass Sources Inferred from Geochemical Analysis of Artifacts on Leeward Hawaiʻi Island. In _Pacific Archaeology: Documenting the Past 50,000 Years. Papers from the 2011 Lapita Pacific Archaeology Conference_, edited by G. R. Summerhayes and Hallie Buckley. University of Otago Studies in Archaeology No. 25, Dunedin, NZ.
Rieth, T.M., P.R. Mills, S.P. Lundblad, A.E. Morrison, A. Johnson. 2013. Variation in Lithic Sources utilized by Late Pre-Contact Elites in Kona, Hawaiʻi Island. _Hawaiian Archaeology 13:_103-130.
Kahn, J.G., J.M. Sinton, P.R. Mills, and S.P. Lundblad. 2013. X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis and Intra-Island Exchange in the Society Island Archipelago (Central Eastern Polynesia)._Journal of Archaeological Science_ 40(2013):1194-1202.
Stevenson, C.M. and P.R. Mills. 2013. A Chronometric Tool for Hawaiian archaeology: the hydration dating of Puʻu Waʻawaʻa trachytic glass. Journal of Archaeological Science. 40(2013):405-415.
Staley, D.P., P.R. Mills and S.P. Lundblad. 2012. "I trust there will be no failure...": The importance of Bricks and Brickmaking at the Adirondack Iron and Steel Companyʻs Upper Works. The Journal for the Society For Industrial Archaeology 38(1):5-26.
Kirch, P.V., P.R. Mills, S.P. Lundblad, J. Sinton, J.G. Kahn. 2012. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(4):1056-1061.
Mintmier, M.A., P.R. Mills, S.P. Lundblad. 2012. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Haleakalā Basalt Adze Quarry Materials, Maui, Hawaiʻi, Journal of Archaeological Science 39(3):615-623.
Mills, P.R., S.P. Lundblad, K. Hon, J.J. Moniz-Nakamura, *L.K. Kahahane, *A. Drake-Raue, *T.M. Souza *R. Wei. 2011. Reappraising craft specialization and exchange in pre-contact Hawaiʻi through non-destructive sourcing of basalt adze debitage, _Journal of Pacific Archaeology_ 2 (2): 79–92.
McCoy, M.D., P.R. Mills, S.P. Lundblad, T. Rieth, J. G. Kahn, R. Gard. 2011. A Cost Surface Model of Volcanic Glass Quarrying and Exchange inHawaiʻi. Journal of Archaeological Science 38:2547-2560.
**Mills, P.R., S.P. Lundblad, J.S. Field, A.B. Carpenter, W.K. McElroy, *P. Rossi. 2010.Geochemical sourcing of basalt artifacts from Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands. _Journal of Archaeological Science_ 37:(1):3385-3393.
Lundblad. S.P., P.R. Mills, *A. Drake-Raue, S. K. Kikiloi. 2011. Non-destructive EDXRF analyses of archaeological basalts. In _X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry in Geoarchaeology_, pp. 65-80, edited by M. Steven Shackley. Natural Sciences in Archaeology Series. Springer Press, North America.
Addison, David, Bryon Bass, Carl Christensen, John Kalolo, Steve Lundblad, Peter Mills, Fiona Petchey, Adam Thompson. 2009. Archaeology of Atafu, Tokelau: some initial results from 2008. Rapa Nui Journal 23(1): 5-9.
Kahn, Jennifer G., Peter Mills, Steve Lundblad, John Holson, Patrick Kirch. 2008. Tool Production at the Nuʻu Quarry, Maui, Hawaiian Islands: Manufacturing Sequences and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analyses. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 30:135-165.
Mills, Peter R., Steven P. Lundblad, *Jacob G. Smith, Patrick C. McCoy, *Sean P. Naleimaile. 2008. Science and Sensitivity: A Geochemical Characterization of the Mauna Kea Adze Quarry Complex,Hawaiʻi Island,Hawaiʻi. _American Antiquity_ 73(4):743-758.
Lundblad, Steven P., Peter R. Mills and Ken Hon. 2008. Analyzing Archaeological Basalt Using Non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF): Effects of Post-depositional Chemical Weathering and Sample Size on Analytical Precision_. Archaeometry 50_ (1)1-11_._
Mills, Peter R. and Steven P. Lundblad. 2006. Preliminary Field Report: The Geochemistry of the Koʻokoʻolau Complex, Mauna Kea Adze Quarry (50-10-23-4136) TMK:4-4-15:10 . Report prepared for theHawaiʻi Natural Area Reserves System (NARS) Commission. University of Hawaiʻi, Hilo.
asterisk * = student author
*Bailey, Heather. 2013. EDXRF of basalt artifacts from Puʻu Kehena, Leeward Kohala. _26th Annual Society for HawaiianArchaeology Conference, Oct 11-13, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, The Society for Hawaiian Arcaheology, p. 15._
*Brandt, Lokelani, *Lima, Pulama, Mills, Peter, Lundblad, Steven, and McElroy, Windy, 2012, Lawa Pono ʻo Halawa, (Halawa is adequately supplied): The ahupuaʻa model demonstrated through stone tool economies of East Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi, _Abstracts 25th Annual Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference, Kona, Hawaiʻi, The Society for Hawaiian Arcaheology, p. 15._
Lundblad, Steven, Mills, Peter, *Kaylor, Dane, and *Mulliken, Katherine, 2012, Geochemical analysis of lithic collections from Lanaʻi Island,Hawaiʻi using EDXRF: Evidence for inter-island exchange of lithic material in Maui County, Hawaiʻi, _Abstracts 25th Annual Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference, Kona, Hawaiʻi, The Society for Hawaiian Arcaheology, p. 20._
Mills, Peter R, and Lundblad, Steven P., 2012, Eight years and counting: A review of the EDXRF geochemical database from the UH Hilo Geoarchaeology Lab, Abstracts 25th Annual Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference, Kona, Hawaiʻi, The Society for Hawaiian Arcaheology, p. 19.
*Mulliken, Katherine, Lundblad, Steven P., and Mills, Peter R., 2012, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of volcanic glass fromHawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park,Hawaiʻi Island, _Abstracts 25th Annual Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference, Kona, Hawaiʻi, The Society for Hawaiian Arcaheology, p. 20._
*Kaylor Dane, Lundblad, Steven, Mills, Peter, *Mulliken, Katherine, 2012, Geochemical analysis of lithic collections from Lanaʻi Island,Hawaiʻi using EDXRF: A model for assessing museum collections in remote locations, _Abstracts, 8th International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific, Living in Changing Island Environment_s, p. 31.
Lundblad, Steven, Mills, Peter, Kahn, Jennifer, *Mulliken, Katherine, and *Kaylor, Dane, 2012, EDXRF analysis of H-3 highway project lithics: Implications for settlement patterns and exchange across O‘ahu, Hawaiʻi, _Abstracts, 8th International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific, Living in Changing Island Environments_, p. 31.
Mills, Peter R., and Lundblad, Steven P., 2012, The power of plenty: Contributions of EDXRF in building regional economic models of lithic procurement in Hawaiʻi, Abstracts, 8th International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific, Living in Changing Island Environments, p. 31.
*Katherine Mulliken and *Manning, Alexis. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Analysis of basaltic abraders from Leeward Hawaiʻi Island. 2011 Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference.
*Uʻilani Macabio. Geochemical Analysis of Ahu a ʻUmi Basalt and Volcanic Glass. 2010 Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference.
Steven P. Lundblad. Geochemistry of Stone Tool Sources on Hawaiʻi Island as Determined by EDXRF. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, 2009 Portland.
*Charles Feeley. The Contribution of Non-Destructive Geochemical analysis to Museum Collections: an example from the Lyman Museum Collections. 2009 Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference.
*Tanya Souza. Stone Adzes of the Waimea Plain. 2008 Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference.
*Jacob Smith. Geochemistry of the Mauna Kea Adze Quarry Complex, 2008, Geol 494 Seminar.
*Rachel Hunt. 2008, Soil Arsenic in Hawaiʻi, Geol 495 Seminar
*Mark Oxley. Pre-Contact Basalt Utilization of Pololu Valley, Hawaiʻi: Results of Recent EDXRF Analysis. 2007 Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference.
*Sarah Jones, 2007, Evaluation of Honokane Achaeological Artifacts, Geol 495 Seminar
*Mark Oxley et al. Changing Aspects of Basalt Distribution and Agricultural Production in Pololu Valley. 2006 Society for Hawaiian Archaeology Conference.
*Jenelle Peacock, 2005, Preliminary analysis of archeologic artifacts from Kahaluʻu rockshelter, Kona District, Hawaiʻi, Geol 495 Seminar
*Serena Williamson, 2004, Source Rock Geochemistry using EDXRF, Kaʻawaliʻi Gulch, Hamakua Coast, Geol. 495 Seminar.