Author Guidelines

Manuscript Categories

Pacific Agriculture and Natural Resources accepts submittals for the following manuscript categories. Number of words includes all text from the Abstract through the Literature Cited; it does not include tables or figure legends. Manuscripts that significantly exceed the word count will be returned without review.

Research Articles (2500-5000 words):
These papers are typically based on original data and analysis, or modeling, and make up the bulk of the journal. Articles should offer useful original contributions to theory and/or practices of agriculture and natural resource management.
Research Notes (<2000 words):
Research notes are short reports of relatively small-scale research projects, or concise or condensed reports of large-scale work, in which the introductory material (e.g., review of relevant literature) is kept to a minimum. They require keywords but not an abstract.
Perspectives (<2000 words):
These papers may take multiple forms: a short essay on new ideas and concepts, a letter, a thought-provoking commentary on a previously published paper, or observation on other items of note.
Reviews (<6000 words):
These papers are comprehensive reviews of a particular topic of Agriculture and Natural Resources in Pacific Basin. Review papers are usually commissioned by the Editor-in-Chief, but may also be submitted unsolicited.

Manuscript Submission

All manuscripts must be submitted electronically as Microsoft Word for Windows attachments to an email message. They must be in proper format for a Microsoft Windows or DOS operating system computer. Files written on an Mac must be converted to Windows format. All figures must be readable by Word and embedded at the end of the manuscript or submitted together in a separate attachment in one TIFF or EPS file. Tables must be placed at the end the Word document, not sent as separate attachments. They should follow the Literature Cited and precede Figure Legends. A cover letter (stating the intended manuscript category) should be attached as a separate Word file. Do not use zipped files unless it is absolutely unavoidable. In the cover letter, at least three suggested reviewers should be provided with detailed contact information. There should be, at most, three attachments to your submittal email: a cover letter, a manuscript, and possibly a separate file containing figures. Entitle each with the last name of the first author, followed by the content (e.g., SmithLetter or SmithManuscript). The email subject line should be Manuscript Submittal.

Submit electronic manuscripts to Armando García-Ortega, at

If technological limitations prevent submitting a manuscript electronically, you may mail a CD containing your manuscript and a cover letter to the following address.

Armando García-Ortega
Corresponding Editor, Pacific Agriculture and Natural Resources
University of Hawaii at Hilo
200 W. Kawili St.
Hilo, HI 96720, U.S.A.

Manuscript Specifications

The following format is designed for Primary Research Articles, and should be modified appropriately for manuscripts in other categories. The manuscript should be arranged as follows, with each section beginning on a separate page:

  1. Title page.
    1. Title: this should be concise and informative
    2. Running title: no more than 45 characters, including spaces
    3. List of authors
    4. Institute or laboratory of origin: Where authors have different addresses, use numbered superscripts to refer to each address provided
    5. Corresponding author: include their telephone, fax and email details.
    6. Keywords: key words or phrases to enable retrieval and indexing by searching techniques; not to exceed 10 words.
  2. Abstract. This should provide a concise statement of the motivation for the work done, the scope of the work and the principal findings. The abstract should be less than 300 words for Primary Research Articles and Reviews, and 150 words for other categories.
  3. Introduction. This should argue the case for your study, outlining only essential background, but should not include either the findings or the conclusions. It should not be a review of the subject area, but should finish with a clear statement of the question being addressed.
  4. Materials and methods. This should allow replication of all experiments described and demonstrate the validity of those experiments for the research being conducted.
  5. Results. This should not include material appropriate to the Discussion section.
  6. Discussion. This should highlight the significance of the results and place them in the context of other work. It should not introduce new material, be over-speculative, reiterate the results, or exceed 20% of the total length. The Results and Discussion sections may be combined for Technical Advances papers.
  7. Acknowledgements.
  8. References.
    • The reference list should be in alphabetical order and include the full title with the name of the journal given in full. When there are eight or more authors only the first three should be listed, following the et al.
      • van Uitregt, V. O., R.S. Wilson, and C. E. Franklin. 2007. Cooler temperatures increase sensitivity to ultraviolet B radiation in embryos and larvae of the frog Limnodynastes peronii. Global Change Biology 13: 1114-1121.
      • Alcamo, J., E. Kreileman, M. Krol et al. 1998. Global modelling of environmental change: an overview of IMAGE 2.1. In: Global Change Scenarios of the 21st Century: Results from the IMAGE 2.1 Model (eds Alcamo, J., R. Leemans, and E. Kreileman), pp 3-71. Pergamon, Oxford.
      • Llorens, L. 2003. Plant ecophysiological responses to experimentally drier and warmer conditions in European shrublands. Unpublished PhD thesis, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 266 pp.
      • Hill, J.K., C.D. Thomas, and B. Huntley. 2001. Climate and recent range changes in butterfiles. In: "Fingerprints" of Climate Change - Adapted Behaviour and Shifting Species Ranges (eds Walther, G.R., C.A. Burga, and P.J. Edwards) pp. 77-88. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
    • Regarding to the citation in the text, When there are more than two authors, use the first author followed by et al. Be sure to italicize et al. Use commas to separate publications in two different years by the same author. Semicolons separate citations of different authors. Cite two or more publications by different authors in chronological sequence, from the earliest to latest. For example:
      • (Cramer et al. 2001)(Lindroth et al. 1997, 1998)(Post and Kwon 2000; Cramer et al. 2001)
  9. Tables. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered, and accompanied by a title and explanatory caption at the top. Each table must be referred to in the text, and an indication of preferred position in the text should be given. Data must not be presented in both tabular and graphical form.
  10. Figure legends. Legends should be typed on a separate sheet. Any explanatory material should be placed in the legend and not in the figure; enough detail should be given so that the figure can be understood without reference to the text. In the full-text online edition of the journal, figure legends may be truncated in abbreviated links to the full screen version. Therefore, the first 100 characters of any legend should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure.