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Papa Wehewehe ʻŌlelo / Glossary

Nā Mokuna / Sections:

Hua Hōʻailona / Abbreviations

ʻaʻ
ʻAʻano. Adjective or adverb.
a-Class possessive
A possessive containing or consisting of a, ka, or indicating that the possessor controlled or acquired the relationship of the possessed object, as child (keiki)/his child (kāna keiki).
Abb. …
Abbreviated as …
Abbr.
Abbreviation.
Also …
Secondary reference
Article
A particle preceding nouns (ka/ke, he, wahi, nā, kekahi).
Cant.
From Cantonese.
Cap.
Beginning with a capital letter.
Initial letters are capitalized in names of people, places, institutions, winds, stars, rains, months, lua fighting holds, days of the week, and months of the year. If an entry is not capitalized, later numbered homonyms within the entry that require initial capital letters are preceded by the note (Cap.) see ʻaʻā #3. Conversely, if an entry is capitalized, later numbered homonyms within the entry that do not require an initial capital letter are preceded by the note (Not cap.): see Kaʻula, Māui.
Caus/sim.
Causative/simulative. A derivative formed by a base preceded by hoʻo, hoʻ, hōʻ, ho, or ; a common function is to transitivize the meaning of the base (makaʻu “fear, to fear” and hoʻomakaʻu “to frighten”). Less commonly the meaning indicates similarity (haole “white person“ and hoʻohaole “to act like a white person”).
Cf.
Compare with or consult. Literally confer.
E.g., hakuleʻi Cf. hakupuni.
Comb.
Combined, combination of.
E.g., aupana Comb. au + pana.
Conj.
Conjunction. A particle connecting sentences, phrases, and words.
Demon.
Demonstrative. A word denoting relative proximit in space of speaker and hearer; many may replace nouns: Ua maikaʻi ka hale “the house is good”. Ua maikaʻi kēia “this is good“.
Dic.
Clarified, exemplified, or modernized meaning to an existing dictionary word.
Dic., ext. mng.
Extended meaning of an existing dictionary word.
E.g., waihona (file, in computers).
Dic., new mng.
New meaning of an existing dictionary word.
E.g., māmā (tempo, in music).
Dic., sp. var.
Spelling variant of an existing dictionary word.
E.g., color/colour
Dic., var. of …
Variant of an existing dictionary word.
Directional
A particle (mai, iho, aʻe, aku) following a headword that indicates relative proximity in space or time of the speaker and hearer.
Eng.
From English.
Exclusive
A pronoun or possessive containing , indicating that the person addressed is excluded, as ua keiki, “the child belonging to me and someone else but not to you”. Cf. Inclusive.
f.
Form, in name of plants.
fig.
Figuratively.
ham
Hamani. Cf. vt.
heh
Hehele. Cf. vi.
iʻoa
Iʻoa. Proper noun.
Idiom
Any short expression with meaning not deducible from the meanings of the parts.
Inclusive
A pronoun or possessive containing , indicating that the person addressed is included; a husband and wife could say ua keiki, “the child belonging to the two of us”. Cf. Exclusive.
Interj.
Interjection. A short expression that does not fit into the normal patterns of the language, often expressing emotion, but also including salutations, taunts, song refrains, calls to animals, and onomatopoeic sounds.
Interr.
Interrogative. A question word, such as hea, “which”.
Inv.
Invented word.
Japn.
From Japanese.
kik
Kikino. Cf. n.
Lit. …
Literally translated as …
Loc. n.
Locative noun. A noun indicating location in space or time. One class of locative nouns includes those not preceded by articles (ʻō “there”); nouns of the other class (preceded by articles) have meanings that differ from those of the same word without preceding articles (i kai “at the sea”, ke kai “the sea”).
Mān., Mānaleo
Mānaleo. From a native speaker or native speaker group.
Mod.
Modern usage.
n.
Noun. A base that may be preceded by an article (espectially ka or ke) or a preposition (especially ma); they are often names of persons, places, or things.
Also kik. (kikino).
nv.
Noun-verb. A base commonly used as both noun (without the nominalizer ʻana) and verb, as ka pilikia “the trouble”, ua pilikia “to be troubled”.
Niʻihau
Originated from Niʻihau.
num.
Numeral.
o-Class possessive
A possessive containing or consisting of o, ko, or indicating that the possessor did not control or acquire the relationship of the possessed object, as parent (makua)/his parent (kona makua)
Off-glide
An audible tongue-shifting following a vowel, as in English pronunciation of e as ei, and o as ou; Hawaiian e and o have no off-glides (that is, they are not diphthongized).
Par.
Particle.
Pas/imp.
Passive/Imperative. The common particle ʻia and the suffixes a, na, hia, kia, lia, mia, and nia that passivize a preceding base, or rarely, change it to a command (makaʻu “fear”, and makaū ʻia ke aliʻi “the chief is feared”; haʻina mai ka puana “tell the song refrain”; hukia ka waha o ka ʻupena “pull the opening of the net”.
PCP
Proto Central Polynesian.
PEP
Proto East Polynesian.
pl.
plural
PNP
Proto Nuclear Polynesian.
poss.
possessive
PPN
Proto Polynesian
prep.
preposition
qd., qds.
Quadrangle, quadrangles
redup.
reduplication
See …
Primary reference
sg.
singular
Sh.
Shortened form.
E.g., hakuleʻi, Sh. haku + pololeʻi.
sp., spp.
species
v.
verb
var.
variant, variety
vi.
intransitive verb. A type of verb that does not take a direct object but that may take a marker of the imperative or passive/imperative, and commonly takes o-class possessives. (Hele! “Go!”, Hele ʻia ke ala “the road is gone upon“.)
Also heh. (hehele).
vs.
stative verb
vt.
transitive verb
usu. …
usually …
&c.
Et cetera. (etc.)

Nā Puke Kūmole / Referenced Books