A possessive containing or consisting of a, ka, or kā indicating that the possessor controlled or acquired the relationship of the possessed object, as child (keiki)/his child (kāna keiki).
Abbreviated as …
A particle preceding nouns (ka/ke, he, wahi, nā, kekahi).
Beginning with a capital letter.
Initial letters are capitalized in names of people, places, institutions, winds, stars, rains, months, lua fighting holds, days of the week, and months of the year. If an entry is not capitalized, later numbered homonyms within the entry that require initial capital letters are preceded by the note (Cap.) see ʻaʻā #3. Conversely, if an entry is capitalized, later numbered homonyms within the entry that do not require an initial capital letter are preceded by the note (Not cap.): see Kaʻula, Māui.
Causative/simulative. A derivative formed by a base preceded by hoʻo, hoʻ, hōʻ, ho, or hō; a common function is to transitivize the meaning of the base (makaʻu “fear, to fear” and hoʻomakaʻu “to frighten”). Less commonly the meaning indicates similarity (haole “white person“ and hoʻohaole “to act like a white person”).
Any short expression with meaning not deducible from the meanings of the parts.
A pronoun or possessive containing kā, indicating that the person addressed is included; a husband and wife could say kā kāua keiki, “the child belonging to the two of us”. Cf. Exclusive.
Interjection. A short expression that does not fit into the normal patterns of the language, often expressing emotion, but also including salutations, taunts, song refrains, calls to animals, and onomatopoeic sounds.
Interrogative. A question word, such as hea, “which”.
Locative noun. A noun indicating location in space or time. One class of locative nouns includes those not preceded by articles (ʻō “there”); nouns of the other class (preceded by articles) have meanings that differ from those of the same word without preceding articles (i kai “at the sea”, ke kai “the sea”).
Mānaleo. From a native speaker or native speaker group.
Noun. A base that may be preceded by an article (especially ka or ke) or a preposition (especially ma); they are often names of persons, places, or things.
Noun-verb. A base commonly used as both noun (without the nominalizer ʻana) and verb, as ka pilikia “the trouble”, ua pilikia “to be troubled”.
Originated from Niʻihau.
A possessive containing or consisting of o, ko, or kō indicating that the possessor did not control or acquire the relationship of the possessed object, as parent (makua)/his parent (kona makua)
An audible tongue-shifting following a vowel, as in English pronunciation of e as ei, and o as ou; Hawaiian e and o have no off-glides (that is, they are not diphthongized).
Passive/Imperative. The common particle ʻia and the suffixes a, na, hia, kia, lia, mia, and nia that passivize a preceding base, or rarely, change it to a command (makaʻu “fear”, and makaū ʻia ke aliʻi “the chief is feared”; haʻina mai ka puana “tell the song refrain”; hukia ka waha o ka ʻupena “pull the opening of the net”.
Proto Central Polynesian.
Proto East Polynesian.
Proto Nuclear Polynesian.
E.g., hakuleʻi, Sh. haku + pololeʻi.
intransitive verb. A type of verb that does not take a direct object but that may take a marker of the imperative or passive/imperative, and commonly takes o-class possessives. (Hele! “Go!”, Hele ʻia ke ala “the road is gone upon“.)
Also heh. (hehele).
Et cetera. (etc.)
Nā Puke Kūmole ｜ Referenced Books
And. - Andrews dictionary, 1865; reference is given only if no evidence is available other than that in Andrews (And.) and Andrews-Parker (AP)