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Peter Mills at the Mauna Kea Adze Quarry Peter R. Mills

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Professor of Anthropology Sign

Peter Mills received his B.A. from the University of Vermont (1984), and wrote an honor's thesis on stone tools found in the Champlain Valley. He completed his M.A. at Washington State University (1987), studying use-wear on stone axes from Sand Canyon Pueblo Ruin in southwestern Colorado. He then worked in Alaska as part of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), and for the Massachusetts Historical Commission (State Historic Preservation Office). He conducted his first fieldwork in Hawai╩╗i during the winter of 1990/91 before returning to graduate school. He has worked extensively in Hawai╩╗i since that time, and has also worked on projects at Russian Fort Ross in California (1812-1841), and on Rapa Nui (Easter Island). He earned his Ph.D. at U.C. Berkeley in 1996. His dissertation research on Kaua╩╗i focused on a fort built by Hawaiians (P─ü ╩╗ula╩╗ula o Hipo/Fort Elisabeth), in association with fur-traders from the Russian-American Company. The dissertation formed the foundation for Mills’s 2002 book Hawai╩╗i's Russian Adventure: a new look at old history (UH Press).

Peter was the recipient of the Frances Davis Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching in 2001, and served as president of the Society for Hawaiian Archaeology from 2010-2012. He maintains active roles with the Society for Hawaiian Archaeology, Paniolo Preservation Society, Wahi Kupuna Internship Program, and the North Hawai╩╗i Education and Research Center's Heritage Center.

Current Projects

New M.A. in Heritage Management!

UH Hilo has initiated a provisional Master's degree program in Heritage Management at UH Hilo in the Fall of 2015 directed by Dr. Mills. The main purpose of this program is to provide affordable, localized, and regionally- focused graduate training opportunities to members of Hawai`i's descendant communities in Heritage Management, with specializations in applied archaeology and cultural impact assessment. In Hawai'i, there is a State requirement for graduate degrees in various Heritage Management positions. ┬áFor example, Hawai`i Administrative Rules (Title 13, Subtitle 13, Chapter 281) require that principal investigators working for one of the two-dozen firms licensed to conduct archaeological research possess “a graduate degree from an accredited institution in archaeology, or anthropology, with a specialization in archaeology, or an equivalent field.” Without providing local opportunities to achieve these degrees, many UH Hilo students hit 'glass ceilings' in their careers with their B.A. degrees. For information on applying to the program, visit the UH Hilo Graduate website. If you wish to support this program, please offer some comments on our Facebook page.


Non-Destructive Sourcing of Polynesian Stone Tools

In the Spring of 2004 Dr. Mills began a long-term geoarchaeology project facilitated through a Major Research Instrumentation Grant from the National Science Foundation (BCS-0317528). Mills works in collaboration with Drs. Steve Lundblad and Ken Hon (UH Hilo Dept. of Geology), using non-destructive Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) to analyze basalt and volcanic glass artifacts (see the Geoarchaeology Laboratory at UH Hilo). 

Historical Archaeology of Hawaiian Ranching Sites

Beginning in 2001, Mills began an historical archaeology project at UH Hilo to investigate the development of ranching traditions in Hawaii in the ahupua`a of Humu`ula on the eastern slopes of Mauna Kea. This project has led to a collaborative relationship with Dr. Carolyn White and her students at the University of Nevada, Reno. Field Schools in 2009 and 2011 have focused on two ranching stations at Laumai`a. The earliest station appears to have been in use in the 1860s and abandoned shortly thereafter. A Facebook group that follows the 2011 excavations is available here.

For additional information on previous field school work, check out the Stone Corral Complex at Keanakolu (50-10-15-24250)

Stone Corral Complex at Keanakolu

Selected Publications (* = UH Hilo student co-authors):

Kirch, P.V., G. Molle, C. Nickelsen, P. Mills, E. Dotte-Sarout, J. Swift, A. Wolfe, and M. Horrocks. 2015. Human ecodynamics in the Mangareva Islands: a stratified sequence from Nenega-Iti Rock Shelter (site AGA-3, Agakauitai Island). Archaeology in Oceania. DOI: 10.1002/arco.5050.

Mills, P.R. and S.P Lundblad. 2014. Current Perspectives on Hawai╩╗i's Stone Tool Economies.Journal of Pacific Archaeology 5(2): 30-39.

Lundblad, S.P., P.R. Mills, J. Kahn, *K. Mulliken, K. and *C. Cauley. 2014. New insights from the Wai╩╗ahukini Rockshelter Site (H8), Ka╩╗┼ź District, Hawai╩╗i Island from non-destructive EDXRF geochemistry. Hawaiian Archaeology Special Publication No. 4, Papers in Honor of Dr. Yosihiko Sinoto, edited by Windy K. McElroy and Eric Komori, pp. 73-84.

Charleux, M., McAlister, A., Mills, P.R., and Lundblad, S.P. 2014. Non-destructive XRF Analyses of Fine-grained Basalts from Eiao, Marquesas Islands. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 5(1):75-89.

Mills, P.R., C.L. White, and B. Barna. 2013. The Paradox of the Paniolo: An Archaeological Perspective of Hawaiian Ranching. Historical Archaeology 47(2):110-132.

Mills, P.R. and K. L. Kawelu. 2013. Decolonizing Heritage Management in Hawaiʻi.   Advances in Anthropology 3(3):127-132.

Lundblad, S.P., P. R. Mills, M. D. McCoy, . G. Kahn, *K. Mulliken and *Dane Kaylor. 2013. ┬áIdentification of Volcanic Glass Sources Inferred from Geochemical Analysis of Artifacts on Leeward HawaiÔÇśi Island. In Pacific Archaeology: Documenting the Past 50,000 Years. ┬áPapers from the 2011 Lapita Pacific Archaeology Conference, edited by G. R. Summerhayes and Hallie Buckley. University of Otago Studies in Archaeology ┬áNo. 25, Dunedin, NZ.

Rieth, T.M., P.R. Mills, S.P. Lundblad, A.E. Morrison, A. Johnson. 2013. Variation in Lithic Sources utilized by Late Pre-Contact Elites in Kona, Hawai╩╗i Island. Hawaiian Archaeology 13:103-130.

Kahn, J.G., J.M. Sinton, P.R. Mills, and S.P. Lundblad. 2013. X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis and Intra-Island Exchange in the Society Island Archipelago (Central Eastern Polynesia). Journal of Archaeological Science 40:1194-1202.

Mills, P.R.. 2013. Book Review: So Far from Home: Russians in Early California, by Glenn J. Farris, editor.  2012. Heyday and Santa Clara University.  California Archaeology 5(1):129-131.

Stevenson, C.M. and P.R. Mills. 2013. A Chronometric Tool for Hawaiian archaeology: the hydration dating of Pu╩╗u Wa╩╗awa╩╗a trachytic glass. Journal of Archaeological Science. 40(2013):405-415.

Staley, D.P., P.R. Mills and S.P. Lundblad. 2012. "I trust there will be no failure...": The importance of Bricks and Brickmaking at the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company╩╗s Upper Works. The Journal of the Society For Industrial Archaeology 38(1):5-26.

Kirch, P.V., P.R. Mills, S.P. Lundblad, J. Sinton,. and J.G. Kahn. 2012. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(4):1056-1061.

Mintmier, M.A., P.R. Mills, S.P. Lundblad. 2012. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Haleakal─ü Basalt Adze Quarry Materials, Maui, Hawai‘i, Journal of Archaeological Science 39(3):615-623.

Mills, P.R., S.P. Lundblad, K. Hon, J.J. Moniz-Nakamura, *L.K. Kahahane, *A. Drake-Raue, *T.M. Souza and *R. Wei. 2011. Reappraising craft specialization and exchange in pre-contact Hawai‘i through non-destructive sourcing of basalt adze debitage, Journal of Pacific Archaeology 2 (2): 79ÔÇô92.

McCoy, M.D., P.R. Mills, S.P. Lundblad, T. Rieth, J. G. Kahn, R. Gard. 2011. A Cost Surface Model of Volcanic Glass Quarrying and Exchange in Hawai╩╗i. Journal of Archaeological Science 38:2547-2560.

Mills, P.R., S.P. Lundblad, J.S. Field, A.B. Carpenter, W.K. McElroy, and *P. Rossi. 2010. Geochemical sourcing of basalt artifacts from Kaua`i, Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Archaeological Science 37:(1):3385-3393.

Lundblad. S.P., P.R. Mills, *A. Drake-Raue, S. K. Kikiloi. 2011. Non-destructive EDXRF analyses of archaeological basalts. In X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry in Geoarchaeology, pp. 65-80, edited by M. Steven Shackley.  Natural Sciences in Archaeology Series.  Springer Press, North America.

Addison, David, Bryon Bass, Carl Christensen, John Kalolo, Steve Lundblad, Peter Mills, Fiona Petchey, and Adam Thompson. 2009.  Archaeology of Atafu, Tokelau: some initial results from 2008.  Rapa Nui Journal 23(1): 5-9.

Mills, Peter R. 2009. Folk Housing in the Middle of the Pacific: Lime Architecture, Cultural Power and Ideology in 19th century Hawaii. In Materiality of Individuality, pp. 75-91, edited by Carolyn White.  Springer Press, North America.

Kahn, Jennifer G., Peter Mills, Steve Lundblad, John Holson, and Patrick Kirch. 2008. Tool Production at the Nu`u Quarry, Maui, Hawaiian Islands: Manufacturing Sequences and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analyses. New Zealand Journal of Archaeology 30:135-165.

Mills, Peter R. 2008. European Exploration and Colonization of the Hawaiian Islands. In Archaeology in America, Vol. 4, pp. 131-134, edited by Francis P. McManamon, Linda S. Cordell, Kent G. Lightfoot, and George R. Milner.  Greenwood Press.

Mills, Peter R. 2008.  Kaua`i Island Ancient and Historical Sites. In Archaeology in America, Vol. 4, pp. 142-144, edited by Francis P. McManamon, Linda S. Cordell, Kent G. Lightfoot, and George R. Milner.  Greenwood Press.

Mills, Peter R., Steven P. Lundblad, *Jacob G. Smith, Patrick C. McCoy, and *Sean P. Naleimaile. 2008. Science and Sensitivity: A Geochemical Characterization of the Mauna Kea Adze Quarry Complex, Hawai╩╗i Island, Hawai╩╗i.  American Antiquity 73(4):743-758.

Lundblad, Steven P., Peter R. Mills and Ken Hon. 2008. Analyzing Archaeological Basalt Using Non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF):  Effects of Post-depositional Chemical Weathering and Sample Size on Analytical Precision.  Archaeometry 50 (1)1-11.

Mills, Peter R. and Steven P. Lundblad. 2006.  Preliminary Field Report: The Geochemistry of the Ko╩╗oko╩╗olau Complex, Mauna Kea Adze Quarry (50-10-23-4136) TMK:4-4-15:10.  Report prepared for the Hawaii Natural Area Reserves System (NARS) Commission.  University of Hawaii, Hilo.

Mills, Peter R. 2005. Connecting with Kaua`iÔÇÖs Canyonlands. In N─ü Mea Kahiko o Kaua╩╗i: Archaeological Studies of Kaua╩╗i, edited by Mike T. Carson and Michael W. Graves. Special Publication No. 2. Society for Hawaiian Archaeology, Honolulu.

Mills, Peter R. 2004. Book Review: Inventing Politics by Juri Mykkanen (UH Press 2003). Hawaiian Journal of History 38:191-195.

Mills, Peter R. 2004. Response to Lydia Black. Hawaiian Journal of History 38:182-186.

Mills, Peter R. 2003. Laup─ühoehoe Nui: Archaeology of a High-risk Landscape on Windward Hawai`i Island. Rapa Nui Journal 17(2):106-114.

Mills, Peter R. 2003. Neo in Oceania: foreign vessels owned by Hawaiian chiefs before 1830. Journal of Pacific History 38(1):53-67.

Mills, Peter R. 2002. Social Integration and the Ala Loa: reconsidering the significance of trails in Hawaiian exchange. Asian Perspectives 41(1):148-166.

Mills, Peter R. 2002. Hawai`i's Russian Adventure: A New Look at Old History. University of Hawai`i Press, Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-2404-0

Mills, Peter R. 2002. Speaking up for Small Fish in the Big Pond: Establishing a Mission for UH Hilo in Pacific Archaeology. Proceedings of the Pacific 2000 Conference, Easter Island Foundation, Los Osos, California.

Mills, Peter R. and *Manije Irani. 2000. A Walk Through History: Pedestrian Survey of the Old Government Beach Road, Honalo to Honua`ino, North Kona, Hawai╩╗i Island. 2 vols (174 pp). Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Trails and Access Program (Na Ala Hele), Honolulu.

Mills, Peter R. 1997. Slate and Ethnicity at Fort Ross (Chapter 10). In The Archaeology and Ethnohistory of Fort Ross, California, Vol 2, pp. 238-247, edited by Kent. G. Lightfoot. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility, Berkeley, California.

Mills, Peter R., and Antoinette Martinez (eds) .1997. The Archaeology of Russian Colonialism in the North and Tropical Pacific. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers, No, 81 (194 pp.).

Lightfoot, Kent G., Ann M. Schiff, Antoinette Martinez, Thomas A. Wake, Stephen Silliman, Peter R. Mills, and Lisa Holm. 1997. Culture Change and Persistence in the Daily Lifeways of Interethnic Households. In Volume II of The Archaeology and Ethnohistory of Fort Ross, California, edited by Kent. G. Lightfoot. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility, pp. 355-419, Berkeley, California.

Stevenson, Christopher M., Sonia Haoa, Peter Mills, Jose R. Ramirez, and Claudio Gomez.
1996. The La Perouse Archaeological Project: Report of the 1995 Field Season, Easter Island. Archaeological Services Consultants, Columbus, Ohio.

Mills, Peter R. 1996. A New View of Kaua╩╗i as "The Separate Kingdom" after 1810. The Hawaiian Journal of History 30:91-104.

Mills, Peter R. 1993 An Axe to Grind: Functional Analysis of Anasazi Stone Axes from Sand Canyon Pueblo Ruin (5-MT-765), Southwestern, Colorado. Kiva 58(3)393-413.

atlatl toss  Waterfall Some present and former UH Hilo students at SHA conference 2010