Catalog 2014–2015

Pharmaceutical Science (PHPS) Post-Baccalaureate Courses

College of Pharmacy

Home » Graduate Education » Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) Graduate Programs » Pharmaceutical Science (PHPS) Post-Baccalaureate Courses

PHPS 501  Biochemistry - Biomolecules (3) The course will lay the biochemical foundation for the understanding of medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology and pathophysiology. The course will cover protein, DNA, and RNA function, in addition to their regulation and repair. The ultimate goal of this course is to present principles critical for understanding the biochemical basis for disease states and drug action.

PHPS 502  Biochemistry - Metabolism (3) "Biochemistry - Metabolism" will delve into metabolism and the interrelationships of metabolic processes. The biochemistry of metabolism focuses on glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, and the synthesis and breakdown of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids). Metabolic control and regulation of pathways will be emphasized, including a discussion on the fundamentals of signal transduction in relation to hormone action. Clinical correlates and metabolic diseases will be examined.

PHPS 503  Pharmaceutical Calculations (2) In this course, students will learn the fundamentals of pharmaceutical calculations, including use of the SI system of units, methods of measurement and expressions of concentration. In addition they will learn what constitutes an accurate, understandable and legal prescription or medication order. Through a series of lectures and exercises based on intensive problem solving, students will learn to perform the calculations required for the preparation of a range of pharmaceutical dosage forms as well as for their proper administration to the patient. Emphasis will be placed on accuracy and prevention of medication errors.

PHPS 504  Pharmaceutical Immunology (3) Basic concepts of immunology, including innate immunity, antigen recognition, lymphocyte development and adaptive immunity will lay the groundwork for understanding immunity in a clinical context. Students will learn the role of the immune system in allergy, auto-immune disease, graft rejection and tumor immunogenicity. Methods of manipulating the immune system pharmacologically will be discussed as well as biotechnology applications.

PHPS 505  Pharmaceutics I (3) (lec., lab) Students will be introduced to issues, theory, and practice involved in the rational choice of drugs, dosage forms, and drug delivery systems, and the legal and professional issues in drug compounding. Discussion of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Compounding Practices will carry over into the lab portion of the class. Students will become comfortable with equipment, procedures, and records used in the compounding of various dosage forms, and will practice clinical dispensing skills vital to shaping a truly professional pharmacist.

PHPS 506  Pharmaceutics II (3) (lec., lab) Students will be introduced to issues, theory and practice, involved in the rational choice of drugs, dosage forms and drug delivery systems, and the legal and professional issues in drug compounding. Discussions of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Compounding Practices will carry over into the lab portion of class. Students will become comfortable with equipment, procedures and records used in the compounding of applications.

PHPS 507  Fnd of Int Therapeut/OTC drugs (3) This course serves as an introduction to the integrated therapeutics sequences of courses. The integrated therapeutics series is the core of the pharmacy curriculum. Material presented will emphasize topic areas that are foundational to the integrated therapeutics sequence of courses. Additionally, an in-depth review of over-the-counter medications will be presented.

PHPS 509  Pathophysiology (4) This course will begin with a review of basic physiological topics that are of special importance to pharmacy, e.g. the autonomic nervous and cardiovascular systems. Following this will be an introduction to the discipline of pathology.

PHPS 511  Pharmacokinetics (3) Students will learn about the time course a drug occupies in the human body. Topics to be covered include drug bioavailability, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination, pharmacokinetics of various dosage forms, routes of administration and drug effects over time. The effects of patient weight, gender and age on drug pharmacokinetics will be discussed along with the therapeutic variation that occurs with these patient parameters. Students will use pharmacokinetic calculations to be able to solve problems in clinical pharmacokinetics. Emphasis will be placed on using pharmacokinetic principles to decrease the risk of toxicity and improve therapeutic outcomes using a variety of commonly used medications.

PHPS 512  Intro to the Pharm Sciences (3) This course is designed to introduce first year pharmacy students to the areas included in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Areas that will be presented are Introduction to Pharmacology, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy. This course will allow students to successfully transition into the integrated Therapeutics sequences of courses taught in years 2 and 3.

PHPS 550  Genetics in Medicine (2) This elective course will introduce the student to the basics of genetics and molecular mechanisms of inheritance as they apply to the treatment of disease and to the response of patients to drug therapy. Students will learn how genetics may lead to new strategies in drug development and treatment, how genetics may be used to predict patient response to specific treatments, and how responses are mediated. Emphasis will be placed on clinical and research applications.

PHPS 551  Substances of Abuse/Addiction (2) This elective course will provide an in-depth review of the neuropharmacology of substances of abuse including stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens and anabolic steroids. Other types of addiction will be discussed including gambling addiction. Special emphasis will be given to basic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms as they relate to the effects of the individual substances of abuse. Current theories of addiction and tolerance will be discussed.

PHPS 552  Dietary Supplements (1) A wide range of products are used in the United States and other parts of the world as aids for better health rather than as therapeutics for the treatment of disease. These products range from vitamins and minerals to herbal supplements used for a variety of purposes. In this course, the rationale for the use of these products will be examined as well as their safety and efficacy.

PHPS 553  Radioactivity in Pharmacy (1) Radiopharmaceuticals are playing a more and more important role worldwide. Particularly, the development of radiolabeled compounds for in vivo biochemical imaging tools like PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) increased considerably.

PHPS 554  Herb Med & Hawaiian Med Plants (1) This elective course will cover the most popular herbal medicines, their chemistry (natural products), information resources, part(s) of plant origin, use, efficacy, safety, and potential drug interactions. A small student-centered research project is assigned with approval by the chair of the department.

PHPS 555  Geographic (Tropical) Medicine (1) This elective course will cover: policy makers and public health experts who have emphasized the growing need for global health literacy and global health capacity among U. S. healthcare professionals. The Institute of Medicine defines global health as health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries, and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions.

PHPS 556  Drugs from Natural Sources (1) This elective course will discuss original drugs used by man for the treatment of himself and his animals were all of natural origin and in some parts of the world the natural environment still provides the majority, if not all, of medications used on a day to day basis for the treatment of common and not so common ailments. Today the natural world is still the source of over 50% of pharmaceuticals either as direct products, derivatives thereof, or as lead structures.

PHPS 558  Drug Development & Regulation (1) The mechanism by which drug products are developed and approved for use in a global market is an evolving process. Concepts of quality by design employed in other industries such as aerospace are being adapted for pharmaceuticals with the intense encouragement of major regulatory agencies.

PHPS 559  Environmental Toxicology (1) This elective is designed to introduce students to the field of environmental toxicology. This course will focus more on ecotoxicology, rather than classical toxicology, and include topics such as xenobiotics, toxic and radioactive metal, toxicity of solvents and pesticides, halogenated aromatic compounds, environmental endocrine disruptors, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment. Pre: Acceptance and second or third year standing in the College of Pharmacy.

PHPS 561  Emerging Trends Drug Discovery (1) This one credit elective course is designed to enhance the student's knowledge of emerging drug targets and related efforts in the drug discovery and development process. The emphasis of the course is on unique and emerging drug targets and is intended to reveal: how novel drugs will complement existing treatment options for various disease states. Pre: Admission to PharmD.

PHPS 562  Disc & Dev of Blockbuster Drug (1) There is a critical point and an interesting story behind each pioneering breakthrough in medicine, when decisions were made as to whether to continue or terminate the development of a promising new drug. Throughout the lectures, the historical discovery and development of representative blockbuster drugs, which changed the world and saved millions of lives, will be discussed. Pre: Acceptance and second year standing in the College of Pharmacy.

PHPS 563  Curr Adv in Neuropharmacology (1) This elective is designed to cover the current literature and latest discoveries in neuropharmacology. Course topics are from a variety of areas and can have a clinical or basic science emphasis but must cover the most recent findings in that field. The effect of a drug on the brain is a paramount concern for pharmacists. The action of drugs on the nervous is the science of neuropharmacology. It comprises several areas of investigation of critical importance to science and medicine. Neuropharmacology involves studies aimed at understanding the mechanism by which drugs alter brain function. These include medications used to treat a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric disorders as well as drugs of abuse. Neuropharmacology uses this information to develop new medications with ever-improving efficacy and safety for diseases of the nervous system. Neuropharmacologic agents are valuable tools with which to probe the molecular and cellular basis of nervous system functioning. Pre: Acceptance and third year standing in the College of Pharmacy.

PHPS 565  Genetics & Pharm of Malaria (1) This course will provide students with a better understanding of the role that genetic variation plays in disease susceptibility at both the individual and population levels. Genetic variation of human hosts and parasites will be covered with an emphasis on co-evolution. Drug action and mechanisms of drug resistance will be explored. The contemporary role of molecular genetic techniques in the detection of genetic variation, with applications toward vaccine development, will also be covered. Pre: Second year standing in the College of Pharmacy.

PHPS 566  Emerging Trends Drug Discovery (1) This 1 credit elective course is designed to enhance the student's knowledge of emerging drug targets and related efforts in the drug discovery and development process. The emphasis of the course is on the drug development process, focusing on the phases of target identification and validation. This elective is intended to reveal: a) how novel drug modalities will complement existing treatment options for various disease states; b) scientific basis for the selection of a particular target; c) the validation of target choice through experimental methods; and, d) methods to integrate a novel target into the drug development pipeline. Pre: Acceptance into the College of Pharmacy and concurrent registration in PHPP 518.

PHPS 567  Pharmacogenetics (1) This elective is designed to introduce students to the field of pharmacogenetics, the study of the genetic basis for variation in drug response. This course will discuss the development of pharmacogenetics, genetics and epigenetics within pharmacogenetics, age-related and ethnic factors in pharmacogenetics, some genomic tools used in pharmacogenetic research, cancer and HIV treatment and pharmacogenetics, and the future of pharmacogenetics research and discoveries. Pre: Acceptance and third year in the College of Pharmacy.

PHPS 568  Antibiotic Mechanisms & Applic (1) This course will provide an exposition of the fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic action. The basic differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes that provide for specific antibiotic targets will be emphasized. Mechanisms of antibiotics will include those that affect cell wall biosynthesis and metabolism, membrane structure and function, nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA replication and other nucleic acid transactions, transcription, and protein synthesis, as well as novel mechanisms. For each biological mechanism, the biological process, for example protein synthesis, will be reviewed to provide a framework for understanding the role of the antibiotic. Classes of antibiotics will include, but are not limited to, b-lactams, b-lactamase inhibitors, glycopeptides, isoniazid, aminoglycosides, tetracylines, macrolides, lincomycin, streptogramins, oxazolidinones, fluoroquinolones, nitroimidazoles, rifamycins, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors, and polymyxins. Antibiotics from natural sources as well as synthetic antibiotics will be addressed. In addition, mechanisms by which microbes develop antibiotic resistance will be discussed. Pre: Second or third year standing in the College of Pharmacy.

PHPS 569  Cancer Prevention (1) This course will discuss the 1) generic risk profiles and and early detection (biomarkers) and 2) the prevention of cancer by reducing risk behavior (sun exposure, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, heavy metals in environment, physical exercise) as well as chemoprevention and vaccination against cancer-inducing viruses (HPVB, HBV). Completion of this course will provide the Pharm D. student with a comprehensive understanding of the current status in preventative cancer medicine. Pre: Second or third year standing in Pharm D.

PHPS 591  Basic & Applied Toxicology (3) This course will provide a general foundation in the understanding of basic toxicological principles. The mechanisms of toxicity and contemporary treatment plans for the most common chemical, environmental and pharmaceutical agents are presented. Additionally this course will provide an in-depth review of the neuropharmacology of substances of abuse including stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens and anabolic steroids. Pre: Second year standing in the College of Pharmacy.

PHPS 601  Integrated Pharmacotherapy I (7) In this first of a series of three courses, pathophysiology, pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutics will be integrated into one discipline that will examine pharmacotherapy based on organ systems of the body. The course will begin with a discussion of SOAP notes and an introduction to pharmaceutical principles. Students will learn to blend their factual knowledge of the basic sciences and apply this knowledge to drug treatment of specific disorders in disparate patients. Synchronous video chats will tie in the pharmacotherapy discussed in lecture with the treatment of CNS disorders. On-site workshops will occur at various times during the semester. Pre: Acceptance into the program.

PHPS 602  Integrated Pharmacotherapy II (7) This course is the second of a series of three courses. This course will begin with a discussion of pharmacoepidemiology and resources to obtain drug information. The major focus of this course will be a detailed coverage of the pathophysiology, pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutics of CNS disorders that require pharmacotherapy. Students will learn to blend their factual knowledge of the basic sciences and apply this knowledge to drug treatment in disparate patients. On-site workshops will be provided at various times during the semester. During the semester students will submit six SOAP notes covering patients with both somatic and CNS related disorders. Synchronous video chats will be employed to relate the pharmacotherapy of somatic disorders with treatment of CNS disorders. A research paper covering the current and future pharmacotherapy of a CNS related disease state selected by the student and approved by the Course Coordinator. The course will culminate with each student presenting their research paper. Pre: Acceptance into the Program.

PHPS 603  Integrated Pharmacotherapy III (4) The course will begin with an overview of Toxicology, then proceed to conclude the discussion of the pharmacotherapy based on organ systems of the body by integrating the pathophysiology, pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutics. Students will learn to blend their factual knowledge of the basic sciences and apply this knowledge to drug treatment of specific disorders in disparate patients. Additional topics discussed will be professional, legal, ethical, and interprofessional issues that relate to ethics, standards of care, laws, and regulations relevant to the practice of psychology involving psychopharmacology. During the semester students will submit three SOAP notes covering patients with both somatic and CNS related disorders. The course will culminate with each student presenting their research paper. Pre: Acceptance in the Program.

PHPS 604  Adv Psychopharmacology I (2) This course serves as the first of two capstone courses that will provide an in-depth coverage of psychopharmacology associated with the treatment of mental disorders. Students will present patient cases in weekly seminars that are based on patients seen in clinical settings from the Psychopharmacology Practicum course taught concurrently. This course will require students to demonstrate competence in medication therapy management specific to psychopathology. In addition, recent literature will be discussed that covers synergistic interactions between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy and will examine the single practitioner vs. the split-treatment model. Pre: Acceptance into the program. Co-req: PHPS 607.

PHPS 605  Adv Psychopharmacology II (2) Students will present patient cases in weekly seminars that are based on patients seen in clinical settings from the Psychopharmacology Practicum courses taught concurrently. This course will require students to demonstrate compentence in medication therapy management specific to psychopathology. In addition, current and future pharmacotherapy of CNS disorders will be discussed: including methodology, standards and conduct of research of psychoactive substances. Drugs classes to be covered include: antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anti-anxiety agents, sedative/hypnotic agents, narcotic analgesics, drugs used to treat the cognitive and behavioral effects of Alzheimer's disease, and drugs used to treat ADHD. Pre: Acceptance into the program, PHPS 604. Co-req: PHPS 607.

PHPS 606  Human Physiology (3) This course is designed to provide an in-depth overview of topics in human physiology that provide a basis for understanding of pharmacology. The course will begin with a review of basic physiological topics including the autonomic nervous, central nervous, and the cardiovascular systems. Following this will be an introduction to the discipline of pathology with an emphasis on diseases of the nervous system. This course will be composed of recorded lectures, live workshops, and synchronous video chat sessions. There is also a requirement of a research paper on a topic of physiology chosen by the student with approval of the Course Coordinator. Pre: Acceptance into the program.

PHPS 607  Psychopharmacology Practicum (2) Students will participate in a psychopharmacology practicum for eight hours per week for at least one-year. The total amount of hours per year is at least 400 hours. They will be supervised by a qualified clinical practitioner with demonstrated skills and experience in clinical psychopharmacology in accordance with the prevailing jurisdictional law. Clinical supervision will be for one hour per week or one hour per eight hours of patient contact. Students will be actively involved in consultation with physicians and/or appropriately credentialed psychologists regarding prescribing of psychoactive medications. The Clinical Psychopharmacology Practicum components will be consistent with APA Recommendations. The Psychopharmacology Practicum courses will require students to demonstrate competence in medication therapy management specific to psychopathology. Students will present cases from this practicum in the Advanced Psychopharmacology I and II courses taught concurrently. At the end of the training program, a capstone competency evaluation will be completed. Students will need to arrange their own practicum according to the guidelines listed in the course syllabus. Pre: Acceptance into the program. Co-req: PHPS 604, 605.

PHPS 608  Law and Pharmacotherapy (2) This course will focus on the pathophysiology, pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics of infections and respiratory processes. Students will learn the issues that relate to ethics, standards of care, laws and regulations relevant to the practice of psychology involving psychopharmacology.

PHPS 701  Apoptosis & Angiogenesis (1) The course will cover mechanisms of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, and angiogenesis, or new vessel growth, and mechanisms of their regulation in different cell types. Students will learn how unbalanced angiogenic and apoptotic responses contribute to a wide variety of disease conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiac, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The course will discuss experimental techniques that are used in the studies of these processes. Part of the course is devoted to approaches to development of drugs that will modulate apoptotic and angiogenic processes, and discussions of critical signaling molecules in these pathways as potential targets for drug development efforts. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 702  Bio Dev: Prin & Prac in Drug Disc (1) This course will explore the biological activities of secondary metabolites that are central to the process of drug discovery and development from nature. This course will emphasize the chemically-driven approach that seeks biological activities for purified compounds. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 703  Cancer Biology (2) An introduction to cancer biology covering the processes involved in tumorigenesis (oncogenes, mutagenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis). There will be discussion of active areas of interest such as cancer stem cells and the role of inflammation in cancer. Lectures will include descriptions of current therapeutics, describe efforts to design new drugs and recent clinical trials. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 704  Com Chem & High Throughput Tec (2) This course is designed to teach students the essential elements of combinatorial chemistry and evolving high throughput technologies in drug discovery. Combinatorial chemistry and high throughput chemistries are dynamic, rapidly evolving fields that have an important role in drug discovery. Most pharmaceutical companies have now incorporated combinatorial and high throughput platforms into their drug discovery research program. Combinatorial chemistry is a relatively new approach to the synthesis of compound libraries in a highly efficient and automated fashion. The topics of this course will include, but not limited to, combinatorial chemistry and parallel synthesis; solid-phase organic synthesis; solution-phase synthesis with solid supported reagents and scavenger resin technology; diversity-oriented synthesis; dynamic combinatorial chemistry; high throughput screening of combinatorial libraries; microwave-assisted organic synthesis; fluorous technology, fragment-based drug discovery; and automation and instrumentation. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 705  Designing Clinical Research (3) The course introduces the science and methodological principles of undertaking clinical research. Emphasis is placed upon clinical trials of complementary and alternative medicine therapies. Topics include research question/problem/objective, research hypothesis, research processes, types of clinical research design, strengths and weaknesses of each design, measurements, concepts of reliability and validity, sampling designs, recruitment, sample size determinations, chance and bias, threats to the internal and external validity, monitoring safety and efficacy data, statistical tests and data management, ethical and regulatory considerations, translational research and funding agency. Students will be given the opportunity to identify a researchable idea/ question and design his/her own clinical or translational research project by preparing a written mini-proposal and then its presentation. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 706  Environmental Toxicology (2) This course is designed to introduce students to the field of environmental toxicology. The emphasis will focus more on ecotoxicology, rather than classical toxicology. Topics that will be covered include toxic and radioactive metal, toxicity of solvents and pesticides, halogenated aromatic compounds, environmental endocrine disruptors, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment. The environmental impact of global warming will also be addressed. Course format will include student lead discussions and presentations, lectures, and general discussion. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 707  Genetics in Medicine (2) This course will provide an exposition of the fundamental principles of human and medical genetics with emphasis on the genes and molecular mechanisms operating in human diseases. The contributions made by genetic variation to disease susceptibility and treatment outcomes will be discussed. Clinical cases will be used to demonstrate and reinforce the general principles of disease inheritance, pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling. Students will learn how understanding genetics can lead to new strategies in drug development and treatment. A combined laboratory and seminar experience will provide students with hands-on experience and keep students abreast of recent developments in the field by presenting current literature. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 708  Isolation Meth for Nat Pro Dsc (2) This course will examine the theory and practice of the various types of chromatographic and non-chromatographic methods that are commonly used for the isolation of biologically active natural products from plants, microorganisms and marine organisms on scales ranging from microgram to kilograms of pure compound. Starting with simple extraction methods, the course will progress through liquid-liquid interactions to liquid-solid interactions and then to gas-solid interactions. Completion of this course will provide the student an understanding of the application of each of the techniques discussed, as well as their relative advantages and disadvantages. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 709  Inst Meth & Struct Elucidation (2) This course will introduce many of the pieces of spectroscopic equipment relevant to solving the three dimensional structure of organic molecules. Hands on use of the equipment to obtain spectroscopic data will be an emphasis of this course. The other emphasis of this course will be how to interpret the recorded information to enable a viable chemical structure to be proposed. During each session it is anticipated that prepared examples and examples arising from current research will be used to enhance participants' knowledge. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 710  Lab Animal Care, Mgt & Med I (2) This course is part one of a two part lecture series and is designed to introduce students to the care and use of laboratory animals in accordance with the National Research Council and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Included in this course are alternatives to traditional use of live animal species and the laws, regulations and guidelines important to laboratory animal research. Emphasis will be placed on the use of rats and mice, rodent anesthesia and analgesia and rodent surgery. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 711  Lab Animal Care, Mgt & Med II (2) This course is part two of a two part lecture series and is designed to introduce students to the care and use of laboratory animals in accordance with the National Research Council and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Included in this course is a review of Laboratory Animal Care, Management and Medicine I. Emphasis will be placed on rabbits, Mongolian gerbils, guinea pigs, Syrian hamsters, dogs and cats, and primates. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 712  Medical Cell Biology (2) This course focuses on the scientific aspects of cell biology important to graduate students with primary focus on eukaryotic cell biology. The course will provide a basis to general cell biology principles in the context of organ systems and human and animal disease. Clinical cases will be used to build a framework for the basic concepts of medical cell biology and help reinforce conceptual understanding. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 713  Organic Medicinal Chemistry I (2) Organic Medicinal Chemistry I provides the chemical and structural basis for the interdisciplinary field of therapeutics related to diuretics, autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular systems. The topics will include the drug discovery and development process of these important medicines, the chemical and structural basis for the pharmacological and therapeutic action drugs, structural classifications, molecular mechanism of actions, structure activity relationship and how the physicochemical properties of drug molecules affect their route of administration stability, and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Synthesis of important molecules from each drug class will also be presented. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 714  Organic Medicinal Chemistry II (2) Organic Medicinal Chemistry II provides the chemical and structural basis for interdisciplinary field of therapeutics related to diabetes, thyroid/pituitary disorders, hormones/ osteoporosis/adrenal, asthmas/COPD, and infectious diseases. The topics will include the drug discovery and development process of these important medicines, the chemical and structural basis for the pharmacological and therapeutic action of drugs, structural classifications, molecular mechanism of actions, structure activity relationship, and how physicochemical properties of drug molecules affect their route of administration, stability, and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Synthesis of important drug molecules from each drug class will also be presented. Pre: PHPS 713.

PHPS 715  Organic Medicinal Chem III (2) Organic Medicinal Chemistry III provides the chemical and structural basis for interdisciplinary field of therapeutics related to antiviral agents, OA/RA/Gout, migraine, CNS agents including Parkinson/Alzheimer/Seizure. The topics will include the drug discovery development process of these important medicines, the chemical and structural basis for pharmacological and therapeutic action of drugs, structural classifications, molecular mechanisms of actions, structure activity relationship, and how the physicochemical properties of drug molecules affect their route of administration, stability, and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Synthesis of important drug molecules from each drug class will also be presented. Pre: PHPS 714.

PHPS 716  Organic Medicinal Chemistry IV (2) Organic Medicinal Chemistry I provides the chemical and structural basis for the interdisciplinary field of therapeutics related to gastro-intestinal/genito-urinary, chemotherapy, pain management, radiopharmaceuticals. The topics will include the drug discovery and development process of these important medicines, the chemical and structural basis for the pharmacological and therapeutic action of drugs, structural classifications, molecular mechanism of action structure activity relationship, and how the physicochemical properties of drug molecules affect their route of administration, stability, and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Synthesis of important drug molecules from each drug class will also be presented. Pre: PHPS 715.

PHPS 717  Med Chem CNS Drugs & Develop (2) The course will focus on modern aspects of the design and development of compounds for the treatment of central nervous system disorders, and in addition on the development of PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) tracers to monitor functional processes in vivo in the human body. Important properties and steps for profiling a drug to enhance the access to the brain will be discussed. The course will start with an overview about CNS targets and pharmacophore models for diverse compound families and will provide synthetic aspects of important drug templates. The production of relevant radionuclides, precursor and radiochemical synthesis, quality control and radiopharmacological aspects (in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo experiments) will be discussed. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 718  Lab Visits & Supervisor Select (1) (lab) This one credit course is designed to enable all PhD candidates time to become familiar with the research being undertaken by possible dissertation supervisors. Each candidate will visit with and interview at least six possible dissertation supervisors and discuss with them dissertation research projects they will be offering. As required, individual candidates may want to spend a longer period in the laboratory of potential dissertation super- visors to actual gain some hands on experience as to what is going on in given laboratory to assist them in making their decision about whose group they would like to join. At the end of the interview process each candidate will submit a three page paper detailing the overall process they went through to eventually select a dissertation supervisor and dissertation topic. Pre: admission into the PhD program in Pharmaceutical Science.

PHPS 719  Mol Biol Tech & Appl-Hlth Care (2) This course will provide students with basic and advanced information regarding DNA, RNA, and proteins, and describe current available techniques used in detecting genetic variation. Potential applications of these techniques to disease screening, drug resistance, and drug discovery and development will be reviewed. Isolation and purification of DNA samples from different cell types and tissues, DNA concentration techniques, restriction digestion and analysis, ligation of DNA to create recombinant molecules and designer genes will be discussed. Students will be provided with access to reference texts and selected online peer-reviewed articles in .pdf format by the instructor. The instructor will conduct lectures for sessions 1 and 15 and provide background materials. Each student will select a topic from the remaining sessions (2-14) and will lead the discussion for that selected topic on the assigned day. Students may work in pairs (or more if necessary), depending on student enrollment. Students will learn to retrieve information from a variety of sources, comprehend and critically evaluate it, and subsequently lead a discussion on the selected topic. There will be no laboratory component. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 720  Nat Prod & Cancer Chemoprevent (2) The course will concentrate on the molecular aspects of chemoprevention as a viable strategy in the fight against cancer. The treatment of many diseases is dependent on natural products. Over half of the currently approved anti-cancer and anti-invective drugs are of natural origin. Active leads from different structural classes such as alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, and phenazines will be described. Since carcinogenesis is a multistage process, different approaches to monitor inhibition of cancer initiation, promotion and progression will be characterized. The course will provide the student with an understanding of detailed aspects of research processes leading to the discovery of promising natural as well as synthetic and semi-synthetic chemopreventive compounds. Special attention will be given to ensure students are aware that the science of chemoprevention research is well established and offers great research opportunities. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 721  Neuropsychopharmacology (2) This course is designed as an intense, doctoral level class that amalgamates the disciplines of neuroscience, animal behavior, neurochemistry, and pharmacology. The course will cover the major topics of neuropharmacology such as cellular and molecular foundations of neuropsychopharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, receptor biology, major neurotransmitter systems and antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, drugs of abuse, and cognitive and movement disorders. Further, this course will integrate some of the principle topics in behavioral neuroscience, including aggression, fear, stress, memory, internal state, and evolution of sex and mating systems, communication, feeding behavior, anti-predator behavior, and the evolution of behavior. Course format will consist of lectures and exams, student presentations, and require a capstone research review paper. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 722  Pharmaceutical Marketing (2) This course has two major areas of emphasis in pharmaceutical marketing. The first part of the course will introduce the basic theory of pharmaceutical marketing and creative thinking behind product development. Students will learn the basic principles of consumer behavior and evaluation, environmental framework, social, and various other marketing theories to provide an understanding of how these concepts can influence product development in laboratories or drug industries. This section will also integrate these principles and concepts to understand issues related to the distribution and design of an innovative drug product development. The second part of the course is intended to use the principles and concepts learned in the first part to effectively develop a market plan for an innovative product. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 723  Pharmacognosy (2) Pharmacognosy is a highly interdisciplinary field which is one of five major areas of pharmaceutical education. Its scope includes the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances, or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources. This course will focus on chemical aspects of Pharmacognosy. Natural products are normally classified according to their biosynthetic origins and chemical properties. Thus, the objective of the course is to familiarize students with an introduction to and classification of natural products (terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids and allied phenolic compounds). The basic metabolic pathways and the origin of secondary metabolites such as the shikimic acid pathways, the acetatemalonate pathway, the mevalonate pathways will be discussed. It is a core course of Pharmacognosy and enable students to use this knowledge in the future to explore Advanced Pharmacognosy. A special emphasis will be placed on how chemical structure affects physiological function of various natural products. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 724  Pharmacology I (3) In this 3 credit, 45 hour lecture course, students will learn pharmacology of specific drug groups. The course uses organ system approach. This course will begin with a discussion of diuretics followed by autonomic nervous system pharmacology and conclude with a discussion of drug groups used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In the autonomic pharmacology unit, students will learn about adrenergic and cholinergic drugs that possess agonist and/or antagonist activities at different types and subtypes of receptors that are present in autonomic nervous system and other tissues in the body. Cardiovascular pharmacology will include drug groups that are used in the management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart failure, disorders of coagulation, cardiac arrhythmias and ischemic heart disease. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 725  Pharmacology II (3) In this 3 credit, 45 hour lecture course, students will learn pharmacology of specific drug groups. The course uses organ system approach. This course will begin with a discussion of endocrine disorders pharmacology followed by pharmacology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and conclude with a discussion of drug groups used for the treatment of infectious diseases. In the endocrine pharmacology unit, students will learn about drug groups that are used in the treatment of diabetes, thyroid and pituitary disorders, osteoporosis, as well as corticosteroid drugs. Respiratory pharmacology unit will include pathophysiology and pharmacology of drug groups that are used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. Infectious disease pharmacology unit will include discussions of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal and antihelmintic drugs. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 726  Pharmacology III (3) This graduate-level course introduces the student to the basis of disease and pharmacology of drugs used to treat viral infections, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and CNS disorders. Course material covers principles of drug action including drug-receptor interactions and mechanism of action, adverse effects, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and pharmacogenomics. The focus of CNS lectures include therapeutics used to treat migraine, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, sleep disorders, anesthesia, and neurodegenerative diseases. Students will be assigned a scientific article to read in advance of "Special Topics" lectures. For five of these assignments, the student will also be required to write a one-page summary of the article and its main findings. Pre: PHPS 725.

PHPS 727  Pharmacology IV (3) This graduate-level course introduces the student to the basis of disease and pharmacology of drugs used to treat gastrointestinal and genitourinary disorders, fertility and contraception, as well as cancer and pain management. Course material covers principles of drug action including drug-receptor interactions and mechanism of action, adverse effects, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and pharmocogenomics. Students will be assigned a scientific article to read in advance of "Special Topics" lectures. For five of these assignments, the student will also be required to write a one-page summary of the article and its main findings. Pre: PHPS 726.

PHPS 728  Phytochem - Terrestrial Plants (2) This course will survey the chemical structures, spectroscopic properties, biosynthesis/biogenesis and biological activities of a wide range of major and minor chemical classes occurring in terrestrial plants. These compound classes will include alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins and other polyphenols, pyrones, quinones, phenylpropanoids, lignans, depsides, depsidones, fats, waxes and lipids among others. Completion of this course will provide the student with a basic familiarity with the kinds of chemical structures found in plants enabling her/him to embark on a career in phytochemical research. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 729  Receptor Theory & Signal Trans (2) This course is designed to provide the student with knowledge of the historical and practical aspects of receptor theory as it applies to drug action, and to introduce how drug actions are mediated through signal transduction cascades, based on specific examples. Lecture topics include: models for receptor-drug interactions; methods for receptor identification; structure-function analysis of GTP-binding proteins and ligand-operated ion channels; receptor tyrosine kinases; nuclear receptors; and receptor-induced signal transduction cascades. Laboratory component of the course is designed to complement lecture topics. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 730  Sample Coll, Documnt & Presrv (1) Participants in this course will learn strategies for sample collection from both the terrestrial and marine environments and for both macro- and micro-organisms. The course will cover permit application, sample collection, and the various ways in which different sample types are preserved for long term storage and how taxonomic voucher specimens are prepared. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 731  Toxicants and Toxicity (3) This course will provide a general foundation in the understanding of basic toxicological principles. The mechanisms of toxicity and contemporary treatment plans for the most common chemical, environmental and pharmaceutical agents will be presented. Additionally, this course will provide an in-depth review of the neuropharmacology of substances of abuse including stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens and anabolic steroids. Other types of addiction will be discussed. Special emphasis will be given to basic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms as they relate to the effects of the individual substances of abuse. Current theories of addiction and tolerance development will be discussed. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 732  Tox Plant Nat Prod-Therap Pot (2) This course will draw on the basic principles of organic chemistry and biology to provide an understanding of the biosynthesis of toxic natural products in plants, their bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation, structural identification, and mode of action in mammalian systems. Toxins discussed will be those responsible for heptotoxicity, teratogenicity, cardiotoxicity, lyosomal storage diseases, and reproductive defects. Students will integrate these principles to understand the importance of dose in discriminating between toxicity and therapeutic action, as well as the role of natural products as lead compounds in drug development. The major classes of toxic compounds occurring in plants will be discussed, with particular reference to those occurring in Hawaii. Discussions of proper experimental design, plant sampling and identification, and structural classification will carry over into the laboratory portion of the class. Students will become familiar with procedures for plant collection, extraction and isolation of pure compounds, and structural identification. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 750  Overview of Pharm Sciences (3) This 3 credit, 45 lecture and written research assignment course will draw on the basic principles of chemistry, biology and physics to provide an introduction to the basics of the Pharmaceutical Sciences. Some of, but not all, the areas covered include: an overview of the subject as a whole, basic organic functional group chemistry, an introduction to Pharmacognosy, and introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, Combinatorial Chemistry and high throughput technologies in modern drug discovery, architecture of drugs, metabolic changes that occur to drugs, introduction to general Pharmacology, transport of drugs across the biological membranes, introduction to Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacogenomics, general mechanisms of drug action, and variations in drug action. Pre: Enrollment in the College of Pharmacy PhD program.

PHPS 751  Biochemistry I - Biomolecules (4) This course is designed to provide a basic foundation for the understanding of medicinal biochemistry, pharmacology, and the structure and function of various biomolecules. Topics will include physical and chemical properties of amino acids, structural and physical properties of proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), lipids, and their relationship to their biological function, fundamentals of signal transduction, DNA replication, mutation, and repair, nucleotide biosynthesis, protein synthesis, and transcription. These principles will provide the basic concepts for understanding the biochemical basis for disease states and drug action. Pre: Enrollment in the College of Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences PhD program.

PHPS 752  Biochemistry II - Metabolism (4) Biochemistry II - Metabolism will delve into metabolism and the interrelationships/integration of metabolic processes. The biochemistry of metabolism focuses on glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, gluconeogensis, and the synthesis and breakdown of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids). Metabolic control and regulation of pathways will be emphasized. This includes a discussion of mechanisms and control of signal transduction pathways, and recurring motifs in metabolism. Clinical correlates and metabolic diseases will be examined, with a substantial emphasis on metabolic syndrome. A sampling of biochemical techniques will also be described. Pre: Enrollment in the College of Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences PhD Program.

PHPS 755  Advanced Pharmaceutics I (3) This course will draw on the basic principles of chemistry, biology and physics to provide an understanding of how drug physico-chemical properties at the molecular and macroscopic assembly level are manifest in dosage form properties and performance. Students will integrate these principles to understand issues in the rational selection of dosage forms and drug delivery systems as well as their role in drug product development. Discussions of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Compounding Practices will carry over into the lab portion of the class. Students will become comfortable with equipment; procedures and records used in the compounding of various dosage forms, and will practice clinical dispensing skills vital to shaping a truly professional pharmacist. Pre: Approval of Major Professor.

PHPS 756  Advanced Pharmaceutics II (3) This course will draw on the basic principles and developmental aspects of drug formulation to deliver the active pharmaceutical ingredient through biological membranes to exert the therapeutic effect at site of action. Understanding of physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient and additives or excipients, pharmacological properties and processability of drug delivery systems can be utilized for optimal performance of the drug delivery systems. Understanding of active pharmaceutical ingredient and additive or excipients physico-chemical properties at the molecular and macroscopic assembly level are manifest in dosage form properties and performance. Students will integrate these principles to understand issues in the rational choice of dosage forms and drug delivery systems as well as their role in drug product development. Discussions of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Compounding Practices will carry over into the lab portion of the class. Students will become familiar with procedures and records used in the compounding of various dosage forms, and will practice clinical dispensing skills vital to shaping a truly professional pharmacy professional scientist. Pre: Enrollment in the College of Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences PhD program.

PHPS 800  Resrch Dissertation-Phrm Sci (1-15) This course outlines the conduct of the dissertation project and preparation of the actual dissertation document for the Doctoral level student. The dissertation is a major undertaking that is a demonstration of mastery of a field of research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences and should represent an original and significant contribution to the field. The dissertation document will usually be no less that 150 pages in length and be based on a research project defined by the candidate's Primary Advisor. The project may take a variety of forms, for example, be quantitative, qualitative, or theoretical, the main criteria being that at the completion of the research the candidate can demonstrate mastery of and excellence in their chosen area of research. Pre: Successful completion of the first, qualifying year of the PhD program progressing to Candidacy, and selection of a Primary Advisor, a Dissertation research topic and a Dissertation Committee.


PHPS x94 Special Topics in Subject Matter (Arr.) (IO) Special topics chosen by the instructor. Course content will vary. May be repeated for credit, provided that a different topic is studied. Additional requirements may apply depending on subject and topic.

PHPS x99 Directed Studies (Arr.) (IO) Statement of planned reading or research required. Pre: instructor’s consent.